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At the Heart of Texas: Cities’ Industry Clusters Drive Growth

Additional Tables for Texas

Location Quotients, Employment Shares, Average Annual Earnings, Demographics

Texas Location Quotients
Industry cluster 2010 2017
Advanced materials 0.8 0.8
Agribusiness 0.7 0.7
Biomedical 0.6 0.6
Business and financial services 1.0 1.1
Chemicals 1.1 1.1
Computer manufacturing 1.1 1.0
Construction 1.3 1.2
Defense and security 0.9 0.9
Education 1.2 1.1
Electrical equipment manufacturing 0.6 0.6
Energy and mining 1.6 1.5
Fabricated metal manufacturing 1.1 1.0
Food services 1.1 1.1
Glass and ceramics 1.1 1.1
Government 0.8 0.8
Health services 1.0 1.0
Information technology and telecommunications 1.1 1.1
Machinery manufacturing 1.1 1.0
Primary metals manufacturing 0.7 0.6
Publishing and information 0.7 0.7
Recreation 0.7 0.7
Retail 1.0 1.0
Textiles 0.6 0.5
Transportation equipment manufacturing 0.8 0.7
Transportation and logistics 1.2 1.2
Utilities 1.1 1.1
Wood products 0.8 0.8
SOURCES: Texas Workforce Commission; Bureau of Labor Statistics; authors’ calculations.
Texas Employment Shares
Industry cluster 2010 2017
Advanced materials 3.0 2.5
Agribusiness 1.8 1.6
Biomedical 0.7 0.6
Business and financial services 8.5 9.4
Chemicals 1.7 1.6
Computer manufacturing 0.9 0.8
Construction 5.5 5.9
Defense and security 3.0 3.3
Education 11.0 9.9
Electrical equipment manufacturing 0.2 0.2
Energy and mining 8.8 8.6
Fabricated metal manufacturing 1.1 1.0
Food services 7.8 8.8
Glass and ceramics 0.4 0.4
Government 6.7 5.6
Health services 11.6 11.6
Information technology and telecommunications 4.8 4.9
Machinery manufacturing 0.8 0.7
Primary metals manufacturing 0.2 0.2
Publishing and information 1.3 1.2
Recreation 2.6 2.7
Retail 11.2 11.0
Textiles 0.4 0.4
Transportation equipment manufacturing 0.8 0.7
Transportation and logistics 3.3 3.7
Utilities 0.5 0.4
Wood products 1.2 1.2
NOTE: The percentage shares of individual clusters do not add to 100 because some industries are counted in multiple clusters, and some industries are not counted at all based on cluster definitions.
SOURCES: Texas Workforce Commission; Bureau of Labor Statistics; authors’ calculations.
Texas Average Annual Earnings
Industry cluster 2010 2012 2014 2016 2017
Advanced materials 82,154 84,468 84,847 88,737 90,961
Agribusiness 41,048 41,242 42,360 43,300 44,134
Biomedical 90,201 89,282 91,095 93,688 96,337
Business and financial services 86,153 87,672 90,182 92,106 92,445
Chemicals 80,600 83,663 85,827 86,810 88,128
Computer manufacturing 111,364 114,313 114,392 123,805 130,458
Construction 55,346 57,915 60,684 63,024 63,224
Defense and security 77,626 77,797 80,641 84,615 85,570
Education 43,879 42,411 43,504 45,093 45,144
Electrical equipment manufacturing 66,699 67,588 72,014 70,846 71,766
Energy and mining 92,568 96,000 96,769 95,219 94,459
Fabricated metal manufacturing 58,593 60,538 61,305 60,056 60,736
Food services 17,757 17,658 17,798 18,533 18,655
Glass and ceramics 51,499 53,930 57,653 58,283 60,338
Government 55,733 55,431 56,212 58,203 58,605
Health services 50,406 49,903 50,653 52,669 52,780
Information technology and telecommunications 93,485 95,293 95,717 99,732 101,583
Machinery manufacturing 81,431 85,292 87,100 85,117 85,885
Primary metal manufacturing 61,241 60,818 61,952 59,032 60,716
Publishing and information 65,944 67,715 69,639 72,532 72,335
Recreation 34,111 34,193 34,293 35,329 35,175
Retail 30,496 30,776 31,075 31,531 31,591
Textiles 45,691 44,633 45,336 45,954 46,010
Transportation and logistics 59,586 62,194 61,913 60,621 60,887
Transportation equipment manufacturing 80,082 78,249 78,672 83,506 83,741
Utilities 101,073 105,494 103,939 107,291 111,503
Wood products 49,179 51,115 51,832 53,697 54,409
 
Industry clusters with LQ > 1 60,615 66,501 67,712 61,527 61,858
Industry clusters with LQ < 1 56,206 50,620 51,267 60,812 61,243
 
Average earnings (total) 52,779 53,998 55,102 55,490 55,800
NOTE: Earnings are in 2017 dollars.
SOURCES: Texas Workforce Commission; Bureau of Labor Statistics; authors’ calculations.
Texas Demographics
Total population (2017) 28,304,596  
Age distribution (percent)
Median (years) 34.5  
Under 15 years 21.9  
15–24 years 14.3  
25–54 years 40.5  
55–64 years 11.2  
Over 64 years 12.0  
Race/ethnicity (percent)
White, Not Hispanic or Latino 42.5  
Hispanic or Latino 39.1  
Black/African American 12.1  
American Indian/Alaska native 0.5  
Asian 4.7  
Hawaiian/Pacific Islander 0.1  
Other race 5.8  
Two or more races 2.6  
Median household income (2017) $59,206  
Poverty status (percent)
Population below poverty 15.6  
Receiving food stamps/SNAP benefits 12.3  
Receiving cash public assistance 1.4  
Education (percent)
High school graduate or higher 82.9  
Bachelor’s degree or higher 28.9  
Less than 9th grade 8.6  
9th–12th grade, no diploma 8.5  
High school graduate or equivalent 25.2  
Some college, no degree 21.8  
Associate’s degree 7.1  
Bachelor’s degree 18.9  
Graduate or professional degree 10.0  
Average household size 2.9  
Foreign-born status (percent)
Foreign born 17.0  
From Latin America 68.6  
From Mexico 54.7  
From Europe 4.1  
From Asia 21.1  
From Africa 5.0  
From Oceania 0.3  
From North America 0.9  
Workforce characteristics (percent)
Population (16 years and over) in labor force 64.5  
Population (16 years and over) unemployed 3.6  
Self-employed 6.9  
Health insurance (percent)
Population with no health insurance 16.6  
NOTE: Population and median household income figures are for 2017; other data refer to 2016.
SOURCE: American Community Survey.

Additional Tables for Amarillo

Location Quotients, Employment Shares, Average Annual Earnings, Demographics

Amarillo Location Quotients
Industry cluster 2010 2017
Advanced materials 0.1 0.1
Agribusiness 0.5 0.5
Biomedical 0.1 0.1
Business and financial services 0.7 0.7
Chemicals 0.7 0.6
Computer manufacturing 0.0 0.0
Construction 1.1 1.2
Defense and security 0.4 0.4
Education 1.1 1.2
Electrical equipment manufacturing 0.4 0.2
Energy and mining 0.9 1.0
Food services 1.2 1.2
Glass and ceramics 0.5 0.6
Government 0.9 1.0
Health services 1.1 1.1
Information technology and telecommunications 0.4 0.4
Machinery manufacturing 0.4 0.4
Publishing and information 0.4 0.3
Recreation 0.7 0.7
Retail 1.1 1.2
Textiles 0.3 0.2
Transportation equipment manufacturing 0.0 0.0
Transportation and logistics 0.8 0.8
Utilities 1.3 1.7
Wood products 0.5 0.4
SOURCES: Texas Workforce Commission; Bureau of Labor Statistics; authors’ calculations.
Amarillo Employment Shares
Industry cluster 2010 2017
Advanced materials 0.4 0.3
Agribusiness 1.1 1.2
Biomedical 0.1 0.1
Business and financial services 6.3 5.8
Chemicals 1.1 1.0
Computer manufacturing 0.0 0.0
Construction 4.9 5.7
Defense and security 1.3 1.4
Education 10.5 10.1
Electrical equipment manufacturing 0.1 0.1
Energy and mining 4.9 5.8
Food services 8.5 9.5
Glass and ceramics 0.2 0.2
Government 7.6 6.7
Health services 13.3 13.5
Information technology and telecommunications 1.8 1.7
Machinery manufacturing 0.3 0.3
Publishing and information 0.8 0.5
Recreation 2.5 2.5
Retail 12.6 12.8
Textiles 0.3 0.2
Transportation equipment manufacturing 0.0 0.0
Transportation and logistics 2.2 2.6
Utilities 0.6 0.6
Wood products 0.8 0.6
NOTE: The percentage shares of individual clusters do not add to 100 because some industries are counted in multiple clusters, and some industries are not counted at all based on cluster definitions.
SOURCES: Texas Workforce Commission; Bureau of Labor Statistics; authors’ calculations.
Amarillo Average Annual Earnings
Industry cluster 2010 2012 2014 2016 2017
Advanced materials 46,860 45,181 44,692 44,738 44,329
Agribusiness 48,136 45,884 47,574 49,298 49,993
Biomedical 47,094 49,239 47,565 44,906 47,782
Business and financial services 58,833 59,808 60,661 58,614 60,798
Chemicals 57,339 55,617 56,206 57,676 60,381
Computer manufacturing 84,711 146,965 79,171 122,321 105,638
Construction 46,959 48,845 48,714 52,114 50,999
Defense and security 40,984 48,746 49,697 48,758 47,423
Education 40,771 38,535 39,712 40,634 40,478
Electrical equipment manufacturing 79,181 124,733 76,575 70,787 70,729
Energy and mining 62,848 54,275 60,319 58,012 60,167
Food services 14,984 15,562 15,950 16,148 16,257
Glass and ceramics 45,136 45,217 45,327 47,097 48,765
Government 46,233 47,560 48,462 51,012 50,893
Health services 50,480 49,070 47,992 50,479 50,434
Information technology and telecommunications 69,663 62,336 58,289 60,694 64,088
Machinery manufacturing 51,267 51,333 54,847 58,635 55,502
Publishing and information 43,898 45,589 46,385 41,873 42,645
Recreation 20,534 20,607 21,743 21,818 20,735
Retail 27,823 27,522 27,559 28,514 28,077
Textiles 29,698 32,453 34,972 35,938 38,448
Transportation and logistics 50,499 50,093 50,550 52,079 53,517
Transportation equipment manufacturing 64,060
Utilities 86,768 88,877 92,126 98,899 103,833
Wood products 41,341 37,473 44,804 47,021 45,262
 
Industry clusters with LQ > 1 36,871 36,207 38,632 39,668 39,806
Industry clusters with LQ < 1 51,044 50,002 49,392 50,955 51,211
 
Average earnings (total) 43,813 43,270 43,510 44,619 44,891
NOTE: Earnings are in 2017 dollars.
SOURCES: Texas Workforce Commission; Bureau of Labor Statistics; authors’ calculations.
Amarillo Demographics
Total population (2017) 264,925  
Age distribution (percent)
Median (years) 34.8  
Under 15 years 21.6  
15–24 years 14.0  
25–54 years 39.5  
55–64 years 11.6  
Over 64 years 13.2  
Race/ethnicity (percent)
White, Not Hispanic or Latino 60.4  
Hispanic or Latino 28.4  
Black/African American 6.0  
American Indian/Alaska native 0.5  
Asian 3.0  
Hawaiian/Pacific Islander 0.1  
Other race 2.7  
Two or more races 3.0  
Median household income (2017) $53,922  
Poverty status (percent)
Population below poverty 15.0  
Receiving food stamps/SNAP benefits 11.7  
Receiving cash public assistance 0.9  
Education (percent)
High school graduate or higher 83.7  
Bachelor’s degree or higher 23.7  
Less than 9th grade 6.3  
9th–12th grade, no diploma 9.9  
High school graduate or equivalent 25.5  
Some college, no degree 25.1  
Associate’s degree 9.3  
Bachelor’s degree 15.9  
Graduate or professional degree 7.8  
Average household size 2.7  
Foreign-born status (percent)
Foreign born 11.1  
From Latin America 61.7  
From Mexico .  
From Europe 2.4  
From Asia 25.4  
From Africa 9.4  
From Oceania 0.3  
From North America 0.8  
Workforce characteristics (percent)
Population (16 years and over) in labor force 65.2  
Population (16 years and over) unemployed 2.2  
Self-employed 6.4  
Health insurance (percent)
Population with no health insurance 14.9  
NOTE: Population and median household income figures are for 2017; other data refer to 2016.
SOURCE: American Community Survey.

Additional Tables for Austin

Location Quotients, Employment Shares, Average Annual Earnings, Demographics

Austin Location Quotients
Industry cluster 2010 2017
Advanced materials 0.9 0.9
Agribusiness 0.2 0.3
Biomedical 0.8 0.7
Business and financial services 1.3 1.5
Chemicals 0.5 0.6
Computer manufacturing 3.6 3.6
Construction 1.2 1.2
Defense and security 1.0 1.4
Education 1.2 1.1
Electrical equipment manufacturing 0.9 0.9
Energy and mining 1.2 1.2
Fabricated metal manufacturing 0.4 0.4
Food services 1.2 1.2
Glass and ceramics 0.8 0.8
Government 1.4 1.2
Health services 0.7 0.7
Information technology and telecommunications 2.4 2.5
Machinery manufacturing 0.5 0.5
Primary metals manufacturing 0.2 0.2
Publishing and information 1.2 1.3
Recreation 0.9 0.9
Retail 1.0 1.0
Textiles 0.3 0.3
Transportation equipment manufacturing 0.1 0.1
Transportation and logistics 0.4 0.5
Utilities 0.5 0.6
Wood products 0.5 0.6
SOURCES: Texas Workforce Commission; Bureau of Labor Statistics; authors’ calculations.
Austin Employment Shares
Industry cluster 2010 2017
Advanced materials 3.3 2.7
Agribusiness 0.5 0.6
Biomedical 1.0 0.8
Business and financial services 10.8 13.4
Chemicals 0.8 0.8
Computer manufacturing 3.1 2.6
Construction 5.0 5.8
Defense and security 3.3 4.9
Education 11.6 9.7
Electrical equipment manufacturing 0.3 0.2
Energy and mining 6.9 6.6
Fabricated metal manufacturing 0.4 0.4
Food services 8.7 10.0
Glass and ceramics 0.3 0.3
Government 10.9 8.4
Health services 8.7 8.7
Information technology and telecommunications 10.6 11.6
Machinery manufacturing 0.4 0.4
Primary metals manufacturing 0.1 0.0
Publishing and information 2.2 2.3
Recreation 3.2 3.4
Retail 10.9 10.6
Textiles 0.2 0.2
Transportation equipment manufacturing 0.1 0.1
Transportation and logistics 1.1 1.5
Utilities 0.2 0.2
Wood products 0.8 0.9
NOTE: The percentage shares of individual clusters do not add to 100 because some industries are counted in multiple clusters, and some industries are not counted at all based on cluster definitions.
SOURCES: Texas Workforce Commission; Bureau of Labor Statistics; authors’ calculations.
Austin Average Annual Earnings
Industry cluster 2010 2012 2014 2016 2017
Advanced materials 93,756 95,640 95,112 108,148 108,842
Agribusiness 35,729 35,009 36,646 39,251 39,444
Biomedical 84,653 86,948 94,770 98,735 105,604
Business and financial services 90,174 90,887 91,559 97,649 99,067
Chemicals 63,606 61,198 67,990 67,407 67,615
Computer manufacturing 134,849 134,613 127,210 137,120 141,034
Construction 52,051 52,445 55,686 59,481 60,828
Defense and security 86,112 88,731 93,620 105,400 107,064
Education 45,912 42,576 44,937 46,272 46,589
Electrical equipment manufacturing 74,949 86,077 77,977 79,308 75,312
Energy and mining 88,610 90,357 87,958 91,692 93,701
Fabricated metal manufacturing 49,429 50,685 51,780 54,987 53,453
Food services 18,277 18,724 19,164 20,393 20,847
Glass and ceramics 49,034 51,012 55,333 56,942 58,195
Government 57,686 57,398 60,279 62,491 62,749
Health services 56,427 56,757 57,316 59,225 58,933
Information technology and telecommunications 110,531 110,169 104,068 110,332 115,479
Machinery manufacturing 100,146 97,589 108,086 104,791 108,779
Primary metal manufacturing 45,998 51,714 50,984 49,008 54,021
Publishing and information 81,350 79,867 83,672 82,886 87,536
Recreation 32,720 34,253 34,662 36,190 36,067
Retail 31,875 32,435 33,145 34,745 35,014
Textiles 40,429 41,148 45,990 54,693 54,200
Transportation and logistics 45,122 46,614 49,298 48,674 45,486
Transportation equipment manufacturing 56,707 55,087 55,389 55,926 58,827
Utilities 106,639 146,905 91,132 92,253 95,973
Wood products 45,938 45,312 48,479 52,971 55,243
 
Industry clusters with LQ > 1 70,689 71,949 72,915 76,727 78,638
Industry clusters with LQ < 1 53,813 51,373 51,900 54,111 53,946
 
Average earnings (total) 55,013 55,501 56,118 58,497 59,742
NOTE: Earnings are in 2017 dollars.
SOURCES: Texas Workforce Commission; Bureau of Labor Statistics; authors’ calculations.
Austin Demographics
Total population (2017) 2,115,827  
Age distribution (percent)
Median (years) 34.4  
Under 15 years 19.9  
15–24 years 13.7  
25–54 years 45.6  
55–64 years 10.6  
Over 64 years 10.3  
Race/ethnicity (percent)
White, Not Hispanic or Latino 52.6  
Hispanic or Latino 32.2  
Black/African American 7.2  
American Indian/Alaska native 0.4  
Asian 5.7  
Hawaiian/Pacific Islander 0.1  
Other race 5.8  
Two or more races 3.5  
Median household income (2017) $73,800  
Poverty status (percent)
Population below poverty 10.9  
Receiving food stamps/SNAP benefits 6.8  
Receiving cash public assistance 1.0  
Education (percent)
High school graduate or higher 89.5  
Bachelor’s degree or higher 42.8  
Less than 9th grade 5.5  
9th–12th grade, no diploma 5.0  
High school graduate or equivalent 18.9  
Some college, no degree 21.4  
Associate’s degree 6.4  
Bachelor’s degree 27.8  
Graduate or professional degree 15.0  
Average household size 2.7  
Foreign-born status (percent)
Foreign born 14.4  
From Latin America 57.1  
From Mexico 43.9  
From Europe 7.1  
From Asia 29.6  
From Africa 3.5  
From Oceania 0.5  
From North America 2.3  
Workforce characteristics (percent)
Population (16 years and over) in labor force 70.9  
Population (16 years and over) unemployed 3.2  
Self-employed 7.9  
Health insurance (percent)
Population with no health insurance 12.2  
NOTE: Population and median household income figures are for 2017; other data refer to 2016.
SOURCE: American Community Survey.

Additional Tables for Beaumont-Port Arthur

Location Quotients, Employment Shares, Average Annual Earnings, Demographics

Beaumont-Port Arthur Location Quotients
Industry cluster 2010 2017
Advanced materials 1.6 1.8
Agribusiness 0.5 0.4
Biomedical 0.2 0.1
Business and financial services 0.6 0.5
Chemicals 2.7 3.3
Computer manufacturing 0.5 0.4
Construction 2.7 2.3
Defense and security 0.4 0.4
Education 1.0 1.0
Electrical equipment manufacturing 0.2 0.3
Energy and mining 2.3 2.6
Fabricated metal manufacturing 2.5 2.0
Food services 1.1 1.1
Glass and ceramics 1.4 0.8
Government 0.9 0.9
Health services 1.1 1.0
Information technology and telecommunications 0.4 0.4
Machinery manufacturing 1.0 1.5
Primary metals manufacturing 1.5 1.5
Publishing and information 0.3 0.2
Recreation 0.5 0.4
Retail 1.1 1.1
Textiles 0.1 0.2
Transportation equipment manufacturing 0.5 0.4
Transportation and logistics 0.9 0.9
Utilities 1.5 1.8
Wood products 0.7 0.5
SOURCES: Texas Workforce Commission; Bureau of Labor Statistics; authors’ calculations.
Beaumont-Port Arthur Employment Shares
Industry cluster 2010 2017
Advanced materials 5.8 5.8
Agribusiness 1.2 0.9
Biomedical 0.3 0.2
Business and financial services 4.7 4.9
Chemicals 4.1 5.0
Computer manufacturing 0.4 0.3
Construction 11.5 11.0
Defense and security 1.4 1.5
Education 10.0 9.0
Electrical equipment manufacturing 0.1 0.1
Energy and mining 12.9 14.7
Fabricated metal manufacturing 2.4 1.9
Food services 7.9 8.7
Glass and ceramics 0.5 0.3
Government 7.4 6.6
Health services 12.8 11.8
Information technology and telecommunications 1.9 1.9
Machinery manufacturing 0.8 1.2
Primary metals manufacturing 0.4 0.4
Publishing and information 0.5 0.4
Recreation 1.8 1.6
Retail 12.5 12.4
Textiles 0.1 0.1
Transportation equipment manufacturing 0.5 0.5
Transportation and logistics 2.4 2.9
Utilities 0.7 0.7
Wood products 1.1 0.8
NOTE: The percentage shares of individual clusters do not add to 100 because some industries are counted in multiple clusters, and some industries are not counted at all based on cluster definitions.
SOURCES: Texas Workforce Commission; Bureau of Labor Statistics; authors’ calculations.
Beaumont-Port Arthur Average Annual Earnings
Industry cluster 2010 2012 2014 2016 2017
Advanced materials 90,693 97,395 105,335 107,557 114,780
Agribusiness 57,323 78,587 76,228 78,341 78,828
Biomedical 62,130 60,315 54,327 63,560 68,074
Business and financial services 72,702 73,604 76,507 77,821 74,238
Chemicals 104,749 110,483 118,628 120,187 127,863
Computer manufacturing 50,477 64,953 46,330 41,438 40,622
Construction 61,393 64,965 65,214 72,117 72,728
Defense and security 48,432 55,382 55,731 46,255 44,972
Education 39,895 37,815 38,322 39,391 39,380
Electrical equipment manufacturing 68,981 78,683 79,291 74,158 71,125
Energy and mining 88,747 89,992 90,947 100,690 98,938
Fabricated metal manufacturing 63,403 69,540 66,602 61,919 61,656
Food services 17,500 17,280 16,153 17,101 16,832
Glass and ceramics 49,285 61,444 71,238 63,896 66,970
Government 52,987 53,261 53,725 55,774 56,598
Health services 43,509 43,465 43,865 44,807 45,179
Information technology and telecommunications 69,819 73,742 69,667 70,623 67,733
Machinery manufacturing 60,754 61,640 62,879 69,385 69,905
Primary metal manufacturing 69,779 74,267 72,041 72,756 70,851
Publishing and information 52,678 43,704 46,353 52,215 52,078
Recreation 21,359 20,137 21,236 20,763 21,125
Retail 29,366 28,766 29,764 30,814 31,376
Textiles 45,254 30,043 29,525 31,363 32,662
Transportation and logistics 53,073 55,514 58,451 56,332 56,541
Transportation equipment manufacturing 61,214 63,473 63,830 58,154 57,949
Utilities 124,886 111,957 116,700 119,614 122,068
Wood products 51,448 64,002 57,369 44,787 44,399
 
Industry clusters with LQ > 1 55,939 61,225 66,369 63,073 67,299
Industry clusters with LQ < 1 56,207 53,399 51,437 58,991 53,934
 
Average earnings (total) 49,481 51,145 52,279 54,139 54,572
NOTE: Earnings are in 2017 dollars.
SOURCES: Texas Workforce Commission; Bureau of Labor Statistics; authors’ calculations.
Beaumont–Port Arthur Demographics
Total population (2017) 412,437  
Age distribution (percent)
Median (years) 36.7  
Under 15 years 20.2  
15–24 years 13.5  
25–54 years 39.2  
55–64 years 12.6  
Over 64 years 14.4  
Race/ethnicity (percent)
White, Not Hispanic or Latino 56.9  
Hispanic or Latino 14.8  
Black/African American 24.3  
American Indian/Alaska native 0.3  
Asian 2.8  
Hawaiian/Pacific Islander 0.0  
Other race 1.1  
Two or more races 1.0  
Median household income (2017) $49,875  
Poverty status (percent)
Population below poverty 17.2  
Receiving food stamps/SNAP benefits 12.9  
Receiving cash public assistance 1.5  
Education (percent)
High school graduate or higher 84.9  
Bachelor’s degree or higher 17.2  
Less than 9th grade 6.1  
9th–12th grade, no diploma 9.0  
High school graduate or equivalent 35.9  
Some college, no degree 22.7  
Associate’s degree 9.1  
Bachelor’s degree 12.1  
Graduate or professional degree 5.1  
Average household size 2.6  
Foreign-born status (percent)
Foreign born 8.1  
From Latin America 68.6  
From Mexico .  
From Europe 3.6  
From Asia 25.8  
From Africa 1.4  
From Oceania 0.2  
From North America 0.5  
Workforce characteristics (percent)
Population (16 years and over) in labor force 56.9  
Population (16 years and over) unemployed 2.6  
Self-employed 4.5  
Health insurance (percent)
Population with no health insurance 17.3  
NOTE: Population and median household income figures are for 2017; other data refer to 2016.
SOURCE: American Community Survey.

Additional Tables for Dallas

Location Quotients, Employment Shares, Average Annual Earnings, Demographics

Dallas Location Quotients
Industry cluster 2010 2017
Advanced materials 0.9 0.8
Agribusiness 0.4 0.4
Biomedical 0.6 0.6
Business and financial services 1.6 1.6
Chemicals 0.9 0.9
Computer manufacturing 2.3 2.2
Construction 1.1 1.1
Defense and security 1.4 1.4
Education 1.0 0.9
Electrical equipment manufacturing 0.6 0.6
Energy and mining 1.1 1.0
Fabricated metal manufacturing 0.8 0.7
Food services 1.0 1.0
Glass and ceramics 1.1 1.1
Government 0.6 0.6
Health services 0.8 0.9
Information technology and telecommunications 1.9 1.7
Machinery manufacturing 0.5 0.5
Primary metals manufacturing 0.9 0.9
Publishing and information 1.2 1.0
Recreation 0.8 0.8
Retail 0.9 0.9
Textiles 0.9 0.8
Transportation equipment manufacturing 0.9 0.7
Transportation and logistics 1.1 1.3
Utilities 0.7 0.7
Wood products 1.0 1.0
SOURCES: Texas Workforce Commission; Bureau of Labor Statistics; authors’ calculations.
Dallas Employment Shares
Industry cluster 2010 2017
Advanced materials 3.5 2.7
Agribusiness 0.9 0.9
Biomedical 0.7 0.6
Business and financial services 13.5 14.3
Chemicals 1.4 1.3
Computer manufacturing 1.9 1.6
Construction 4.7 5.2
Defense and security 4.5 4.9
Education 9.1 8.2
Electrical equipment manufacturing 0.2 0.1
Energy and mining 6.1 5.7
Fabricated metal manufacturing 0.8 0.7
Food services 7.5 8.2
Glass and ceramics 0.4 0.4
Government 4.9 4.0
Health services 10.0 10.3
Information technology and telecommunications 8.3 7.8
Machinery manufacturing 0.4 0.3
Primary metals manufacturing 0.2 0.2
Publishing and information 2.1 1.9
Recreation 2.8 2.9
Retail 10.3 10.3
Textiles 0.6 0.5
Transportation equipment manufacturing 0.9 0.8
Transportation and logistics 3.1 4.1
Utilities 0.3 0.3
Wood products 2.0 1.5
NOTE: The percentage shares of individual clusters do not add to 100 because some industries are counted in multiple clusters, and some industries are not counted at all based on cluster definitions.
SOURCES: Texas Workforce Commission; Bureau of Labor Statistics; authors’ calculations.
Dallas Average Annual Earnings
Industry cluster 2010 2012 2014 2016 2017
Advanced materials 87,377 93,592 94,570 98,991 103,582
Agribusiness 53,269 54,194 54,465 52,936 53,935
Biomedical 80,017 82,898 78,482 82,655 85,796
Business and financial services 92,226 93,405 97,068 100,179 100,602
Chemicals 65,567 70,896 72,475 73,895 72,877
Computer manufacturing 111,193 120,283 129,462 137,677 149,548
Construction 57,297 58,438 60,270 64,724 66,296
Defense and security 83,346 82,943 86,025 90,224 91,077
Education 46,839 46,018 47,069 49,005 49,232
Electrical equipment manufacturing 73,659 64,522 72,694 72,246 70,062
Energy and mining 92,336 96,839 99,235 98,246 98,692
Fabricated metal manufacturing 55,607 51,577 54,088 53,997 54,240
Food services 20,135 19,708 19,202 20,165 20,433
Glass and ceramics 56,201 57,573 63,951 66,544 68,153
Government 62,175 61,390 61,852 64,240 64,744
Health services 59,680 58,041 57,693 59,141 59,672
Information technology and telecommunications 102,959 105,195 109,767 114,238 114,619
Machinery manufacturing 61,843 61,749 70,865 64,597 65,103
Primary metal manufacturing 55,634 56,932 58,401 57,475 59,971
Publishing and information 79,800 83,359 85,528 87,018 83,874
Recreation 45,107 44,332 44,673 45,201 44,336
Retail 33,471 33,843 33,432 34,348 34,043
Textiles 52,381 51,382 51,833 50,427 50,716
Transportation and logistics 53,813 53,451 53,615 52,764 51,432
Transportation equipment manufacturing 91,415 84,655 86,377 92,895 94,037
Utilities 108,490 116,934 111,975 120,703 117,101
Wood products 52,104 53,451 54,418 56,976 58,310
 
Industry clusters with LQ > 1 76,616 78,328 77,901 80,914 81,207
Industry clusters with LQ < 1 54,099 53,724 58,910 59,787 60,245
 
Average earnings (total) 59,859 60,559 61,132 63,032 63,315
NOTE: Earnings are in 2017 dollars.
SOURCES: Texas Workforce Commission; Bureau of Labor Statistics; authors’ calculations.
Dallas Demographics
Total population (2017) 4,911,124  
Age distribution (percent)
Median (years) 34.6  
Under 15 years 22.1  
15–24 years 13.7  
25–54 years 42.9  
55–64 years 10.9  
Over 64 years 10.3  
Race/ethnicity (percent)
White, Not Hispanic or Latino 44.1  
Hispanic or Latino 29.7  
Black/African American 16.4  
American Indian/Alaska native 0.3  
Asian 7.5  
Hawaiian/Pacific Islander 0.1  
Other race 4.8  
Two or more races 3.1  
Median household income (2017) $68,734  
Poverty status (percent)
Population below poverty 12.5  
Receiving food stamps/SNAP benefits 9.2  
Receiving cash public assistance 1.2  
Education (percent)
High school graduate or higher 84.4  
Bachelor’s degree or higher 36.5  
Less than 9th grade 8.2  
9th–12th grade, no diploma 7.3  
High school graduate or equivalent 20.5  
Some college, no degree 20.8  
Associate’s degree 6.6  
Bachelor’s degree 23.8  
Graduate or professional degree 12.7  
Average household size 2.8  
Foreign-born status (percent)
Foreign born 20.2  
From Latin America 59.5  
From Mexico 47.1  
From Europe 3.9  
From Asia 28.5  
From Africa 6.9  
From Oceania 0.1  
From North America 1.0  
Workforce characteristics (percent)
Population (16 years and over) in labor force 69.6  
Population (16 years and over) unemployed 3.1  
Self-employed 6.2  
Health insurance (percent)
Population with no health insurance 15.5  
NOTE: Population and median household income figures are for 2017; other data refer to 2016.
SOURCE: American Community Survey.

Additional Tables for El Paso

Location Quotients, Employment Shares, Average Annual Earnings, Demographics

El Paso Location Quotients
Industry cluster 2010 2017
Advanced materials 0.4 0.4
Agribusiness 0.5 0.5
Biomedical 0.2 0.2
Business and financial services 0.5 0.5
Chemicals 0.7 0.7
Computer manufacturing 0.4 0.2
Construction 1.3 1.0
Defense and security 0.6 0.5
Education 1.5 1.5
Electrical equipment manufacturing 1.4 0.8
Energy and mining 0.7 0.7
Fabricated metal manufacturing 0.8 0.7
Food services 1.2 1.3
Glass and ceramics 0.8 0.5
Government 1.2 1.2
Health services 1.0 1.1
Information technology and telecommunications 0.6 0.5
Machinery manufacturing 0.3 0.4
Primary metal manufacturing 1.3 1.7
Publishing and information 0.4 0.3
Recreation 0.5 0.5
Retail 1.1 1.2
Textiles 1.0 1.1
Transportation equipment manufacturing 0.3 0.4
Transportation and logistics 1.3 1.4
Utilities 0.9 1.3
Wood products 0.7 0.6
SOURCES: Texas Workforce Commission; Bureau of Labor Statistics; authors’ calculations.
El Paso Employment Shares
Industry cluster 2010 2017
Advanced materials 1.3 1.2
Agribusiness 1.3 1.2
Biomedical 0.3 0.3
Business and financial services 4.6 4.6
Chemicals 1.0 1.0
Computer manufacturing 0.3 0.2
Construction 5.6 5.0
Defense and security 1.9 1.8
Education 14.2 12.7
Electrical equipment manufacturing 0.4 0.2
Energy and mining 3.9 3.8
Fabricated metal manufacturing 0.7 0.7
Food services 9.0 10.1
Glass and ceramics 0.3 0.2
Government 9.3 8.3
Health services 11.7 13.5
Information technology and telecommunications 2.8 2.4
Machinery manufacturing 0.2 0.3
Primary metal manufacturing 0.4 0.4
Publishing and information 0.8 0.5
Recreation 1.8 1.8
Retail 12.5 13.1
Textiles 0.7 0.7
Transportation equipment manufacturing 0.4 0.4
Transportation and logistics 3.7 4.2
Utilities 0.4 0.5
Wood products 1.1 1.0
NOTE: The percentage shares of individual clusters do not add to 100 because some industries are counted in multiple clusters, and some industries are not counted at all based on cluster definitions.
SOURCES: Texas Workforce Commission; Bureau of Labor Statistics; authors’ calculations.
El Paso Average Annual Earnings
Industry cluster 2010 2012 2014 2016 2017
Advanced materials 46,405 44,812 48,331 47,597 47,641
Agribusiness 33,507 33,274 35,130 36,487 36,317
Biomedical 51,300 64,352 71,910 85,617 83,498
Business and financial services 49,629 48,119 46,875 51,290 50,202
Chemicals 38,068 36,904 40,838 41,606 42,367
Computer manufacturing 47,140 40,639 47,672 49,448 56,310
Construction 38,461 37,715 39,481 41,477 41,555
Defense and security 44,126 41,780 42,653 45,649 43,461
Education 42,122 40,480 41,153 41,447 41,568
Electrical equipment manufacturing 64,699 64,618 131,303 86,780 103,165
Energy and mining 41,712 42,364 45,515 47,415 48,436
Fabricated metal manufacturing 63,480 61,773 62,269 64,178 62,416
Food services 15,088 14,861 14,500 15,207 15,106
Glass and ceramics 27,638 28,139 40,256 42,296 46,914
Government 57,457 57,264 57,786 59,094 58,626
Health services 43,860 42,782 42,109 44,012 43,957
Information technology and telecommunications 52,428 51,694 50,191 53,718 51,151
Machinery manufacturing 41,840 44,936 46,122 46,870 42,760
Primary metal manufacturing 56,644 57,371 60,038 55,076 56,285
Publishing and information 40,114 38,008 36,979 44,612 46,117
Recreation 23,778 20,287 20,866 21,760 22,548
Retail 25,595 25,328 25,435 26,139 26,435
Textiles 38,244 36,459 37,605 33,623 33,681
Transportation and logistics 44,005 43,011 42,661 42,946 43,490
Transportation equipment manufacturing 59,811 58,072 60,126 46,891 48,674
Utilities 83,506 89,976 74,994 84,146 86,716
Wood products 32,927 34,408 34,288 34,436 33,905
 
Industry clusters with LQ > 1 36,613 36,885 36,743 37,688 37,769
Industry clusters with LQ < 1 44,158 43,875 44,924 46,684 46,278
 
Average earnings (total) 37,550 37,176 37,111 37,833 37,924
NOTE: Earnings are in 2017 dollars.
SOURCES: Texas Workforce Commission; Bureau of Labor Statistics; authors’ calculations.
El Paso Demographics
Total population (2017) 844,818  
Age distribution (percent)
Median (years) 32.1  
Under 15 years 23.0  
15–24 years 16.1  
25–54 years 38.7  
55–64 years 10.2  
Over 64 years 11.9  
Race/ethnicity (percent)
White, Not Hispanic or Latino 12.3  
Hispanic or Latino 82.2  
Black/African American 3.6  
American Indian/Alaska native 0.6  
Asian 1.3  
Hawaiian/Pacific Islander 0.0  
Other race 11.6  
Two or more races 2.5  
Median household income (2017) $44,416  
Poverty status (percent)
Population below poverty 22.8  
Receiving food stamps/SNAP benefits 21.6  
Receiving cash public assistance 1.6  
Education (percent)
High school graduate or higher 76.9  
Bachelor’s degree or higher 21.9  
Less than 9th grade 13.7  
9th–12th grade, no diploma 9.4  
High school graduate or equivalent 23.3  
Some college, no degree 23.3  
Associate’s degree 8.3  
Bachelor’s degree 14.6  
Graduate or professional degree 7.3  
Average household size 3.1  
Foreign-born status (percent)
Foreign born 25.1  
From Latin America 93.0  
From Mexico 90.8  
From Europe 2.3  
From Asia 3.6  
From Africa 1.0  
From Oceania 0.0  
From North America 0.0  
Workforce characteristics (percent)
Population (16 years and over) in labor force 61.3  
Population (16 years and over) unemployed 3.4  
Self-employed 6.4  
Health insurance (percent)
Population with no health insurance 19.5  
NOTE: Population and median household income figures are for 2017; other data refer to 2016.
SOURCE: American Community Survey.

Additional Tables for Fort Worth

Location Quotients, Employment Shares, Average Annual Earnings, Demographics

Fort Worth Location Quotients
Industry cluster 2010 2017
Advanced materials 0.7 0.6
Agribusiness 0.5 0.4
Biomedical 0.7 0.6
Business and financial services 0.9 0.8
Chemicals 1.1 1.0
Computer manufacturing 0.4 0.3
Construction 1.2 1.2
Defense and security 1.3 1.1
Education 1.0 1.0
Electrical equipment manufacturing 0.9 0.8
Energy and mining 1.2 1.2
Fabricated metal manufacturing 1.1 1.2
Food services 1.1 1.1
Glass and ceramics 1.2 1.2
Government 0.7 0.7
Health services 0.8 0.9
Information technology and telecommunications 0.8 0.7
Machinery manufacturing 1.1 1.2
Primary metal manufacturing 0.3 0.2
Publishing and information 0.8 0.6
Recreation 0.9 0.8
Retail 1.0 1.1
Textiles 0.7 0.5
Transportation equipment manufacturing 3.4 2.7
Transportation and logistics 2.3 1.5
Utilities 0.8 0.8
Wood products 1.0 1.1
SOURCES: Texas Workforce Commission; Bureau of Labor Statistics; authors’ calculations.
Fort Worth Employment Shares
Industry cluster 2010 2017
Advanced materials 2.5 1.9
Agribusiness 1.1 1
Biomedical 0.8 0.7
Business and financial services 7.4 7
Chemicals 1.7 1.6
Computer manufacturing 0.4 0.2
Construction 5 5.9
Defense and security 4.5 3.8
Education 10 8.8
Electrical equipment manufacturing 0.3 0.2
Energy and mining 6.6 7
Fabricated metal manufacturing 1.1 1.1
Food services 8.2 9.2
Glass and ceramics 0.4 0.4
Government 5.5 4.7
Health services 10.2 11.3
Information technology and telecommunications 3.4 3
Machinery manufacturing 0.9 0.9
Primary metal manufacturing 0.1 0.1
Publishing and information 1.4 1.1
Recreation 3.3 3
Retail 11.8 11.8
Textiles 0.5 0.4
Transportation equipment manufacturing 3.5 3.1
Transportation and logistics 6.5 4.8
Utilities 0.4 0.3
Wood products 1.5 1.6
NOTE: The percentage shares of individual clusters do not add to 100 because some industries are counted in multiple clusters, and some industries are not counted at all based on cluster definitions.
SOURCES: Texas Workforce Commission; Bureau of Labor Statistics; authors’ calculations.
Fort Worth Average Annual Earnings
Industry cluster 2010 2012 2014 2016 2017
Advanced materials 86,894 85,846 81,720 74,896 69,785
Agribusiness 51,295 50,149 50,701 53,249 52,901
Biomedical 152,118 135,567 125,687 102,308 94,360
Business and financial services 75,290 75,319 78,088 80,569 81,270
Chemicals 98,629 93,074 87,437 75,376 72,983
Computer manufacturing 86,658 84,734 80,857 89,791 87,790
Construction 50,460 51,753 54,579 57,863 60,418
Defense and security 87,777 87,885 88,876 91,022 89,034
Education 43,232 42,308 43,278 44,695 44,066
Electrical equipment manufacturing 67,531 65,446 68,172 68,588 71,322
Energy and mining 83,368 75,853 78,625 71,766 72,643
Fabricated metal manufacturing 52,526 53,323 55,472 54,188 55,033
Food services 17,533 17,437 17,565 18,164 18,254
Glass and ceramics 51,932 55,022 59,728 59,747 62,752
Government 63,121 62,494 62,517 65,038 65,727
Health services 54,632 55,122 55,015 55,963 56,313
Information technology and telecommunications 74,316 72,584 74,421 75,686 75,995
Machinery manufacturing 66,040 69,553 67,927 66,944 68,726
Primary metal manufacturing 55,060 53,275 53,900 53,790 52,006
Publishing and information 57,421 56,474 58,518 61,478 59,648
Recreation 31,046 34,399 31,682 34,514 33,781
Retail 32,001 31,397 31,680 32,110 31,700
Textiles 48,392 45,213 46,881 46,438 51,815
Transportation and logistics 58,733 58,450 49,894 45,509 46,467
Transportation equipment manufacturing 94,220 96,044 92,359 99,533 95,231
Utilities 103,846 109,117 117,927 124,416 118,322
Wood products 47,531 48,261 49,498 52,251 53,924
 
Industry clusters with LQ > 1 52,605 53,336 52,751 50,106 50,044
Industry clusters with LQ < 1 64,161 59,931 60,142 64,908 64,544
 
Average earnings (total) 51,298 50,841 51,875 52,276 52,714
NOTE: Earnings are in 2017 dollars.
SOURCES: Texas Workforce Commission; Bureau of Labor Statistics; authors’ calculations.
Fort Worth Demographics
Total population (2017) 2,488,538  
Age distribution (percent)
Median (years) 35.1  
Under 15 years 22.0  
15–24 years 13.5  
25–54 years 41.1  
55–64 years 11.7  
Over 64 years 11.6  
Race/ethnicity (percent)
White, Not Hispanic or Latino 53.1  
Hispanic or Latino 26.4  
Black/African American 13.5  
American Indian/Alaska native 0.5  
Asian 4.6  
Hawaiian/Pacific Islander 0.1  
Other race 6.0  
Two or more races 3.0  
Median household income (2017) $65,439  
Poverty status (percent)
Population below poverty 13.2  
Receiving food stamps/SNAP benefits 11.1  
Receiving cash public assistance 1.2  
Education (percent)
High school graduate or higher 85.6  
Bachelor’s degree or higher 28.8  
Less than 9th grade 6.6  
9th–12th grade, no diploma 7.8  
High school graduate or equivalent 26.5  
Some college, no degree 23.0  
Associate’s degree 7.3  
Bachelor’s degree 19.4  
Graduate or professional degree 9.5  
Average household size 2.9  
Foreign-born status (percent)
Foreign born 14.4  
From Latin America 59.3  
From Mexico 49.9  
From Europe 5.2  
From Asia 24.0  
From Africa 10.1  
From Oceania 0.3  
From North America 1.1  
Workforce characteristics (percent)
Population (16 years and over) in labor force 66.4  
Population (16 years and over) unemployed 3.0  
Self-employed 6.5  
Health insurance (percent)
Population with no health insurance 15.6  
NOTE: Population and median household income figures are for 2017; other data refer to 2016.
SOURCE: American Community Survey.

Additional Tables for Houston

Location Quotients, Employment Shares, Average Annual Earnings, Demographics

Houston Location Quotients
Industry cluster 2010 2017
Advanced materials 1.0 1.0
Agribusiness 0.3 0.3
Biomedical 0.6 0.6
Business and financial services 1.1 1.0
Chemicals 1.5 1.6
Computer manufacturing 0.9 0.7
Construction 1.6 1.5
Defense and security 0.8 0.7
Education 1.1 1.1
Electrical equipment manufacturing 0.8 0.7
Energy and mining 2.3 2.1
Fabricated metal manufacturing 1.9 1.7
Food services 1.0 1.1
Glass and ceramics 1.2 1.2
Government 0.6 0.6
Health services 0.9 0.9
Information technology and telecommunications 0.8 0.8
Machinery manufacturing 2.2 1.9
Primary metal manufacturing 0.5 0.5
Publishing and information 0.5 0.5
Recreation 0.6 0.7
Retail 0.9 1.0
Textiles 0.5 0.4
Transportation equipment manufacturing 0.3 0.2
Transportation and logistics 1.5 1.3
Utilities 1.5 1.5
Wood products 0.6 0.6
SOURCES: Texas Workforce Commission; Bureau of Labor Statistics; authors’ calculations.
Houston Employment Shares
Industry cluster 2010 2017
Advanced materials 3.8 3.3
Agribusiness 0.7 0.7
Biomedical 0.7 0.7
Business and financial services 9.0 9.4
Chemicals 2.4 2.4
Computer manufacturing 0.7 0.5
Construction 6.9 7.1
Defense and security 2.7 2.6
Education 10.5 9.8
Electrical equipment manufacturing 0.2 0.2
Energy and mining 13.3 12.2
Fabricated metal manufacturing 1.8 1.7
Food services 7.5 8.8
Glass and ceramics 0.4 0.4
Government 4.6 3.9
Health services 10.3 10.7
Information technology and telecommunications 3.8 3.6
Machinery manufacturing 1.7 1.4
Primary metal manufacturing 0.1 0.1
Publishing and information 1.0 0.9
Recreation 2.3 2.5
Retail 10.5 10.5
Textiles 0.4 0.3
Transportation equipment manufacturing 0.3 0.2
Transportation and logistics 4.1 4.0
Utilities 0.6 0.6
Wood products 0.9 0.9
NOTE: The percentage shares of individual clusters do not add to 100 because some industries are counted in multiple clusters, and some industries are not counted at all based on cluster definitions.
SOURCES: Texas Workforce Commission; Bureau of Labor Statistics; authors’ calculations.
Houston Average Annual Earnings
Industry cluster 2010 2012 2014 2016 2017
Advanced materials 85,835 88,217 89,508 94,195 97,136
Agribusiness 55,227 53,810 52,583 51,807 52,512
Biomedical 91,054 89,914 92,950 101,297 110,040
Business and financial services 101,936 103,693 105,695 104,660 104,444
Chemicals 100,730 103,317 106,506 111,148 113,496
Computer manufacturing 103,839 99,124 94,034 98,251 96,514
Construction 65,995 69,062 72,861 73,834 72,883
Defense and security 76,586 75,569 78,089 78,946 79,286
Education 46,750 45,968 47,670 49,880 49,985
Electrical equipment manufacturing 64,638 69,073 70,976 73,799 77,316
Energy and mining 119,894 125,444 124,557 123,673 120,706
Fabricated metal manufacturing 63,695 67,507 67,773 65,234 66,269
Food services 18,860 18,683 18,990 19,530 19,514
Glass and ceramics 53,149 56,688 57,244 56,232 57,804
Government 60,868 60,460 60,756 63,265 63,891
Health services 56,531 56,643 57,272 59,258 58,782
Information technology and telecommunications 90,577 94,306 93,030 96,833 95,701
Machinery manufacturing 97,114 101,846 102,492 103,066 103,421
Primary metal manufacturing 62,849 58,311 59,608 58,856 60,081
Publishing and information 66,378 67,377 70,356 74,538 74,089
Recreation 38,262 38,052 37,098 38,468 38,902
Retail 31,112 31,319 32,150 32,372 32,380
Textiles 50,870 50,616 53,942 55,889 52,233
Transportation and logistics 76,050 84,102 77,871 79,562 80,508
Transportation equipment manufacturing 74,892 73,720 79,269 79,731 81,800
Utilities 119,242 124,631 126,614 124,790 134,235
Wood products 53,101 53,969 58,609 58,365 58,435
 
Industry clusters with LQ > 1 78,245 81,979 82,404 81,110 80,337
Industry clusters with LQ < 1 55,631 55,889 56,250 57,454 57,303
 
Average earnings (total) 63,031 65,474 66,707 65,399 64,953
NOTE: Earnings are in 2017 dollars.
SOURCES: Texas Workforce Commission; Bureau of Labor Statistics; authors’ calculations.
Houston Demographics
Total population (2017) 6,892,427  
Age distribution (percent)
Median (years) 34.2  
Under 15 years 22.5  
15–24 years 13.7  
25–54 years 42.1  
55–64 years 11.3  
Over 64 years 10.5  
Race/ethnicity (percent)
White, Not Hispanic or Latino 36.9  
Hispanic or Latino 36.8  
Black/African American 17.3  
American Indian/Alaska native 0.4  
Asian 7.6  
Hawaiian/Pacific Islander 0.1  
Other race 6.9  
Two or more races 2.2  
Median household income (2017) $63,802  
Poverty status (percent)
Population below poverty 14.8  
Receiving food stamps/SNAP benefits 11.8  
Receiving cash public assistance 1.5  
Education (percent)
High school graduate or higher 83.3  
Bachelor’s degree or higher 32.0  
Less than 9th grade 8.9  
9th–12th grade, no diploma 7.8  
High school graduate or equivalent 23.7  
Some college, no degree 20.6  
Associate’s degree 7.1  
Bachelor’s degree 20.4  
Graduate or professional degree 11.6  
Average household size 2.9  
Foreign-born status (percent)
Foreign born 23.5  
From Latin America 63.4  
From Mexico 40.2  
From Europe 4.2  
From Asia 25.2  
From Africa 5.8  
From Oceania 0.4  
From North America 0.9  
Workforce characteristics (percent)
Population (16 years and over) in labor force 66.6  
Population (16 years and over) unemployed 4.2  
Self-employed 7.0  
Health insurance (percent)
Population with no health insurance 17.2  
NOTE: Population and median household income figures are for 2017; other data refer to 2016.
SOURCE: American Community Survey.
 

Additional Tables for Lubbock

Location Quotients, Employment Shares, Average Annual Earnings, Demographics

Lubbock Location Quotients
Industry cluster 2010 2017
Advanced materials 0.1 0.1
Agribusiness 1.2 1.1
Biomedical 0.2 0.2
Business and financial services 0.5 0.6
Chemicals 0.5 0.5
Construction 1.0 1.0
Defense and security 0.3 0.3
Education 1.4 1.5
Electrical equipment manufacturing 0.0 0.3
Energy and mining 0.7 0.8
Fabricated metal manufacturing 0.5 0.5
Food services 1.5 1.4
Glass and ceramics 0.4 0.5
Government 0.7 0.8
Health services 1.4 1.4
Information technology and telecommunications 0.7 0.5
Machinery manufacturing 0.9 0.8
Primary metal manufacturing 0.1 0.0
Publishing and information 0.7 0.6
Recreation 0.8 0.8
Retail 1.1 1.2
Textiles 0.4 0.4
Transportation equipment manufacturing 0.1 0.0
Transportation and logistics 0.6 0.8
Utilities 1.0 1.2
Wood products 0.5 0.6
SOURCES: Texas Workforce Commission; Bureau of Labor Statistics; authors’ calculations.
Lubbock Employment Shares
Industry cluster 2010 2017
Advanced materials 0.4 0.3
Agribusiness 3.0 2.6
Biomedical 0.2 0.2
Business and financial services 4.4 5.1
Chemicals 0.7 0.7
Construction 4.3 5.0
Defense and security 0.9 1.2
Education 13.1 13.1
Electrical equipment manufacturing 0.0 0.1
Energy and mining 4.2 4.6
Fabricated metal manufacturing 0.5 0.5
Food services 10.8 10.9
Glass and ceramics 0.1 0.2
Government 5.9 5.5
Health services 17.1 16.7
Information technology and telecommunications 3.2 2.2
Machinery manufacturing 0.7 0.6
Primary metal manufacturing 0.0 0.0
Publishing and information 1.2 1.1
Recreation 2.7 3.0
Retail 12.7 12.8
Textiles 0.3 0.3
Transportation equipment manufacturing 0.1 0.0
Transportation and logistics 1.8 2.4
Utilities 0.4 0.4
Wood products 0.8 0.9
NOTE: The percentage shares of individual clusters do not add to 100 because some industries are counted in multiple clusters, and some industries are not counted at all based on cluster definitions.
SOURCES: Texas Workforce Commission; Bureau of Labor Statistics; authors’ calculations.
Lubbock Average Annual Earnings
Industry cluster 2010 2012 2014 2016 2017
Advanced materials 60,887 42,528 43,969 45,542 46,757
Agribusiness 44,626 43,382 44,243 43,997 46,548
Biomedical 62,296 67,097 62,501 64,371 66,048
Business and financial services 53,413 56,749 57,019 56,409 55,596
Chemicals 49,889 50,533 54,160 59,377 61,421
Construction 40,502 44,337 44,448 47,552 48,250
Defense and security 44,659 49,852 49,669 50,863 51,382
Education 50,322 49,112 49,869 51,365 50,976
Electrical equipment manufacturing 54,482
Energy and mining 47,617 49,927 49,713 49,736 50,226
Fabricated metal manufacturing 45,829 47,516 46,350 44,193 48,608
Food services 15,864 16,267 16,587 16,681 16,700
Glass and ceramics 39,576 42,706 43,205 45,827 43,899
Government 50,840 48,788 50,940 51,366 51,731
Health services 47,913 45,366 48,227 50,237 50,845
Information technology and telecommunications 47,797 47,413 49,710 50,167 52,070
Machinery manufacturing 47,332 48,564 50,776 49,675 51,095
Primary metal manufacturing 29,638 31,213 30,666 30,835 28,090
Publishing and information 51,916 52,690 56,218 64,544 63,643
Recreation 23,824 25,229 25,326 24,723 21,727
Retail 27,698 28,239 29,374 29,432 29,570
Textiles 32,004 33,930 35,522 34,223 33,718
Transportation and logistics 43,665 41,925 42,724 44,720 44,954
Transportation equipment manufacturing 46,526 39,119 26,069
Utilities 79,168 79,021 79,770 81,125 83,849
Wood products 36,974 38,343 39,848 41,736 41,888
 
Industry clusters with LQ > 1 38,168 37,081 38,786 39,245 40,212
Industry clusters with LQ < 1 46,591 46,566 47,898 48,237 48,620
 
Average earnings (total) 39,745 39,845 40,878 41,920 42,242
NOTE: Earnings are in 2017 dollars.
SOURCES: Texas Workforce Commission; Bureau of Labor Statistics; authors’ calculations.
Lubbock Demographics
Total population (2017) 316,983  
Age distribution (percent)
Median (years) 30.8  
Under 15 years 20.6  
15–24 years 20.3  
25–54 years 36.4  
55–64 years 10.5  
Over 64 years 12.2  
Race/ethnicity (percent)
White, Not Hispanic or Latino 53.8  
Hispanic or Latino 35.6  
Black/African American 6.9  
American Indian/Alaska native 1.3  
Asian 1.9  
Hawaiian/Pacific Islander 0.3  
Other race 5.0  
Two or more races 2.4  
Median household income (2017) $47,276  
Poverty status (percent)
Population below poverty 19.6  
Receiving food stamps/SNAP benefits 14.6  
Receiving cash public assistance 1.4  
Education (percent)
High school graduate or higher 85.3  
Bachelor’s degree or higher 30.2  
Less than 9th grade 6.3  
9th–12th grade, no diploma 8.4  
High school graduate or equivalent 25.2  
Some college, no degree 24.4  
Associate’s degree 5.5  
Bachelor’s degree 19.1  
Graduate or professional degree 11.1  
Average household size 2.6  
Foreign-born status (percent)
Foreign born 5.7  
From Latin America 55.2  
From Mexico .  
From Europe 3.8  
From Asia 30.4  
From Africa 8.8  
From Oceania 0.5  
From North America 1.3  
Workforce characteristics (percent)
Population (16 years and over) in labor force 63.3  
Population (16 years and over) unemployed 2.5  
Self-employed 5.5  
Health insurance (percent)
Population with no health insurance 12.8  
NOTE: Population and median household income figures are for 2017; other data refer to 2016.
SOURCE: American Community Survey.

Additional Tables for McAllen

Location Quotients, Employment Shares, Average Annual Earnings, Demographics

McAllen Location Quotients
Industry cluster 2010 2017
Advanced materials 0.0 0.1
Agribusiness 1.2 0.8
Biomedical 0.2 0.1
Business and financial services 0.4 0.4
Chemicals 0.3 0.3
Computer manufacturing 0.0 0.1
Construction 0.7 0.6
Defense and security 0.3 0.2
Education 1.9 1.9
Energy and mining 0.6 0.6
Fabricated metal manufacturing 0.3 0.4
Food services 1.0 1.0
Glass and ceramics 1.0 0.7
Government 1.0 1.1
Health services 1.7 1.7
Information technology and telecommunications 0.2 0.2
Machinery manufacturing 0.0 0.2
Primary metal manufacturing 0.3 0.4
Publishing and information 0.2 0.2
Recreation 0.5 0.5
Retail 1.3 1.3
Textiles 0.1 0.3
Transportation and logistics 0.9 0.8
Utilities 0.8 0.8
Wood products 0.4 0.5
NOTE: Data for a few manufacturing sectors excluded due to insufficient information.
SOURCES: Texas Workforce Commission; Bureau of Labor Statistics; authors’ calculations.
McAllen Employment Shares
Industry cluster 2010 2017
Advanced materials 0.2 0.3
Agribusiness 3.0 1.9
Biomedical 0.2 0.1
Business and financial services 3.2 3.2
Chemicals 0.4 0.4
Computer manufacturing 0.0 0.0
Construction 3.1 2.7
Defense and security 0.9 0.9
Education 17.7 16.5
Energy and mining 3.6 3.3
Fabricated metal manufacturing 0.3 0.4
Food services 7.4 8.4
Glass and ceramics 0.3 0.2
Government 7.7 7.7
Health services 20.5 20.0
Information technology and telecommunications 0.9 1.0
Machinery manufacturing 0.0 0.1
Primary metal manufacturing 0.1 0.1
Publishing and information 0.4 0.3
Recreation 1.8 1.7
Retail 14.6 14.3
Textiles 0.1 0.2
Transportation and logistics 2.6 2.6
Utilities 0.3 0.3
Wood products 0.6 0.7
NOTES: The percentage shares of individual clusters do not add to 100 because some industries are counted in multiple clusters, and some industries are not counted at all based on cluster definitions. Data for a few manufacturing sectors excluded due to insufficient information.
SOURCES: Texas Workforce Commission; Bureau of Labor Statistics; authors’ calculations.
McAllen Average Annual Earnings
Industry cluster 2010 2012 2014 2016 2017
Advanced materials 35,872 37,770 39,684 57,892 55,472
Agribusiness 26,629 28,059 30,767 32,951 33,507
Biomedical 41,627 46,185 51,518 72,268 65,015
Business and financial services 39,392 39,231 40,326 41,406 42,102
Chemicals 36,185 35,732 38,614 40,995 42,597
Computer manufacturing 81,020 87,879 84,556 87,254 100,538
Construction 31,530 33,776 35,262 35,459 36,786
Defense and security 29,499 29,928 30,243 33,799 33,606
Education 41,795 40,003 40,923 42,667 43,015
Energy and mining 43,508 48,248 49,816 43,548 46,723
Fabricated metal manufacturing 30,994 31,469 36,250 34,442 31,738
Food services 15,287 15,050 14,928 15,245 15,102
Glass and ceramics 32,702 28,148 32,710 34,246 34,959
Government 47,784 48,307 48,460 50,122 49,455
Health services 34,913 31,243 32,210 32,974 31,814
Information technology and telecommunications 41,632 44,184 43,269 44,042 42,805
Machinery manufacturing 46,970 40,255 45,496 48,271 40,717
Primary metal manufacturing 48,888 40,246 46,708 48,810 45,669
Publishing and information 36,447 36,605 33,562 30,636 31,839
Recreation 21,321 20,912 21,272 22,556 22,527
Retail 25,189 25,898 26,424 26,763 27,037
Textiles 27,285 23,995 25,503 30,602 30,464
Transportation and logistics 36,690 40,009 41,761 42,114 43,428
Utilities 60,575 52,439 55,801 60,460 63,896
Wood products 39,445 45,961 40,305 40,361 41,564
 
Industry clusters with LQ > 1 31,903 30,227 35,223 33,753 33,501
Industry clusters with LQ < 1 39,776 41,287 32,845 38,875 39,803
 
Average earnings (total) 33,445 32,704 33,128 33,698 33,628
NOTES: Earnings are in 2017 dollars. Data for a few manufacturing sectors excluded due to insufficient information.
SOURCES: Texas Workforce Commission; Bureau of Labor Statistics; authors’ calculations.
McAllen Demographics
Total population (2017) 860,661  
Age distribution (percent)
Median (years) 29.2  
Under 15 years 27.8  
15–24 years 16.5  
25–54 years 36.6  
55–64 years 8.1  
Over 64 years 11.1  
Race/ethnicity (percent)
White, Not Hispanic or Latino 6.6  
Hispanic or Latino 91.8  
Black/African American 0.3  
American Indian/Alaska native 0.2  
Asian 1.1  
Hawaiian/Pacific Islander 0.0  
Other race 12.5  
Two or more races 1.5  
Median household income (2017) $37,106  
Poverty status (percent)
Population below poverty 31.4  
Receiving food stamps/SNAP benefits 29.8  
Receiving cash public assistance 1.7  
Education (percent)
High school graduate or higher 65.5  
Bachelor’s degree or higher 18.3  
Less than 9th grade 21.4  
9th–12th grade, no diploma 13.1  
High school graduate or equivalent 23.3  
Some college, no degree 19.6  
Associate’s degree 4.4  
Bachelor’s degree 12.8  
Graduate or professional degree 5.5  
Average household size 3.6  
Foreign-born status (percent)
Foreign born 26.7  
From Latin America 96.2  
From Mexico 93.1  
From Europe 0.4  
From Asia 3.1  
From Africa 0.0  
From Oceania 0.0  
From North America 0.3  
Workforce characteristics (percent)
Population (16 years and over) in labor force 56.9  
Population (16 years and over) unemployed 4.0  
Self-employed 10.3  
Health insurance (percent)
Population with no health insurance 28.3  
NOTE: Population and median household income figures are for 2017; other data refer to 2016.
SOURCE: American Community Survey.
 

Additional Tables for Midland-Odessa

Location Quotients, Employment Shares, Average Annual Earnings, Demographics

Midland-Odessa Location Quotients
Industry cluster 2010 2017
Advanced materials 0.6 0.4
Agribusiness 0.2 0.2
Biomedical 0.1 0.0
Business and financial services 0.6 0.5
Chemicals 1.0 1.5
Computer manufacturing 0.1 0.1
Construction 1.6 1.5
Defense and security 0.3 0.2
Education 0.9 0.8
Electrical equipment manufacturing 0.1 0.0
Energy and mining 4.2 5.3
Fabricated metal manufacturing 1.6 1.5
Food services 1.1 1.1
Glass and ceramics 0.7 1.1
Government 0.8 0.6
Health services 0.7 0.7
Information technology and telecommunications 0.4 0.3
Machinery manufacturing 2.6 2.0
Publishing and information 0.3 0.2
Recreation 0.6 0.7
Retail 1.0 1.0
Textiles 0.1 0.1
Transportation equipment manufacturing 0.2 0.1
Transportation and logistics 0.9 1.1
Utilities 1.6 1.0
Wood products 0.2 0.1
SOURCES: Texas Workforce Commission; Bureau of Labor Statistics; authors’ calculations.
Midland-Odessa Employment Shares
Industry cluster 2010 2017
Advanced materials 2.1 1.3
Agribusiness 0.5 0.5
Biomedical 0.1 0.1
Business and financial services 5.3 4.5
Chemicals 1.6 2.3
Computer manufacturing 0.1 0.0
Construction 6.9 7.0
Defense and security 1.0 0.9
Education 8.5 7.2
Electrical equipment manufacturing 0.0 0.0
Energy and mining 23.8 29.8
Fabricated metal manufacturing 1.6 1.5
Food services 8.3 8.7
Glass and ceramics 0.2 0.4
Government 6.4 4.5
Health services 8.6 8.6
Information technology and telecommunications 2.0 1.5
Machinery manufacturing 2.0 1.5
Publishing and information 0.5 0.3
Recreation 2.2 2.4
Retail 11.0 10.5
Textiles 0.1 0.1
Transportation equipment manufacturing 0.2 0.1
Transportation and logistics 2.5 3.4
Utilities 0.7 0.4
Wood products 0.3 0.2
NOTE: The percentage shares of individual clusters do not add to 100 because some industries are counted in multiple clusters, and some industries are not counted at all based on cluster definitions.
SOURCES: Texas Workforce Commission; Bureau of Labor Statistics; authors’ calculations.
Midland-Odessa Average Annual Earnings
Industry cluster 2010 2012 2014 2016 2017
Advanced materials 69,623 74,995 83,054 70,642 72,427
Agribusiness 32,221 32,407 31,996 33,968 33,031
Biomedical 63,502 50,951 45,725 61,630 88,728
Business and financial services 66,384 71,831 78,393 74,151 76,031
Chemicals 73,394 82,854 79,460 79,094 83,471
Computer manufacturing 58,392 55,626 61,181 57,718 61,797
Construction 55,772 64,178 68,203 65,926 68,388
Defense and security 61,559 64,974 69,289 65,676 72,899
Education 40,942 40,080 43,964 44,003 43,346
Electrical equipment manufacturing 59,841 51,257 51,644 71,569
Energy and mining 87,747 90,293 96,750 91,316 98,001
Fabricated metal manufacturing 64,216 69,453 78,192 68,784 73,787
Food services 17,289 18,471 19,554 19,279 19,642
Glass and ceramics 56,168 54,738 60,246 66,710 69,608
Government 50,727 52,440 57,102 56,673 57,255
Health services 46,220 48,562 49,179 51,812 50,889
Information technology and telecommunications 62,668 69,016 79,767 72,336 76,274
Machinery manufacturing 70,645 73,032 82,595 77,851 78,239
Publishing and information 38,728 42,721 42,842 39,688 39,428
Recreation 23,532 25,433 27,787 25,838 24,741
Retail 30,874 34,113 36,762 33,568 35,197
Textiles 29,677 31,966 36,174 34,995 30,902
Transportation and logistics 60,442 66,268 70,466 57,252 65,204
Transportation equipment manufacturing 57,427 69,523 80,894 73,256 79,878
Utilities 109,430 120,053 93,523 102,454 104,871
Wood products 43,069 41,932 44,659 52,914 55,738
 
Industry clusters with LQ > 1 67,991 73,436 78,616 65,139 77,844
Industry clusters with LQ < 1 46,200 48,484 52,406 54,252 49,458
 
Average earnings (total) 54,050 60,407 65,781 59,863 63,664
NOTE: Earnings are in 2017 dollars.
SOURCES: Texas Workforce Commission; Bureau of Labor Statistics; authors’ calculations.
Midland–Odessa Demographics
Total population (2017) 327,762  
Age distribution (percent)
Median (years) 31.0  
Under 15 years 25.2  
15–24 years 14.1  
25–54 years 40.1  
55–64 years 10.6  
Over 64 years 10.0  
Race/ethnicity (percent)
White, Not Hispanic or Latino 40.0  
Hispanic or Latino 52.0  
Black/African American 5.9  
American Indian/Alaska native 0.5  
Asian 1.6  
Hawaiian/Pacific Islander 0.0  
Other race 4.5  
Two or more races 2.3  
Median household income (2017) $64,210  
Poverty status (percent)
Population below poverty 10.4  
Receiving food stamps/SNAP benefits 11.2  
Receiving cash public assistance 1.3  
Education (percent)    
High school graduate or higher 79.7  
Bachelor’s degree or higher 21.0  
Less than 9th grade 8.1  
9th–12th grade, no diploma 12.2  
High school graduate or equivalent 29.2  
Some college, no degree 21.9  
Associate’s degree 7.6  
Bachelor’s degree 15.4  
Graduate or professional degree 5.5  
Average household size 3.0  
Foreign-born status (percent)
Foreign born 12.3  
From Latin America 85.3  
From Mexico .  
From Europe 3.0  
From Asia 9.1  
From Africa 2.1  
From Oceania 0.0  
From North America 0.6  
Workforce characteristics (percent)
Population (16 years and over) in labor force 70.2  
Population (16 years and over) unemployed 5.9  
Self-employed 6.8  
Health insurance (percent)
Population with no health insurance 19.4  
NOTE: Population and median household income figures are for 2017; other data refer to 2016.
SOURCE: American Community Survey.

Additional Tables for San Antonio

Location Quotients, Employment Shares, Average Annual Earnings, Demographics

San Antonio Location Quotients
Industry cluster 2010 2017
Advanced materials 0.4 0.4
Agribusiness 0.6 0.5
Biomedical 1.0 0.7
Business and financial services 1.0 1.0
Chemicals 0.5 0.5
Computer manufacturing 0.3 0.3
Construction 1.2 1.1
Defense and security 0.8 0.7
Education 1.1 1.1
Electrical equipment manufacturing 0.2 0.2
Energy and mining 0.9 1.0
Fabricated metal manufacturing 0.5 0.4
Food services 1.3 1.2
Glass and ceramics 0.7 1.0
Government 1.0 0.9
Health services 1.1 1.1
Information technology and telecommunications 0.8 0.8
Machinery manufacturing 0.3 0.5
Primary metal manufacturing 0.5 0.4
Publishing and information 0.7 0.6
Recreation 1.1 1.0
Retail 1.0 1.0
Textiles 0.5 0.4
Transportation equipment manufacturing 1.1 1.1
Transportation and logistics 0.7 0.9
Utilities 0.3 0.3
Wood products 0.6 0.6
SOURCES: Texas Workforce Commission; Bureau of Labor Statistics; authors’ calculations.
San Antonio Employment Shares
Industry cluster 2010 2017
Advanced materials 1.6 1.2
Agribusiness 1.5 1.2
Biomedical 1.2 0.9
Business and financial services 8.7 9.3
Chemicals 0.7 0.7
Computer manufacturing 0.2 0.2
Construction 5.3 5.1
Defense and security 2.6 2.6
Education 10.8 9.5
Electrical equipment manufacturing 0.1 0.0
Energy and mining 5.0 5.4
Fabricated metal manufacturing 0.4 0.4
Food services 9.2 10.1
Glass and ceramics 0.2 0.3
Government 7.9 6.6
Health services 13.5 13.7
Information technology and telecommunications 3.6 3.8
Machinery manufacturing 0.2 0.4
Primary metal manufacturing 0.1 0.1
Publishing and information 1.3 1.0
Recreation 3.9 3.8
Retail 11.4 11.4
Textiles 0.4 0.2
Transportation equipment manufacturing 1.2 1.2
Transportation and logistics 2.0 2.7
Utilities 0.1 0.1
Wood products 1.0 0.9
NOTE: The percentage shares of individual clusters do not add to 100 because some industries are counted in multiple clusters, and some industries are not counted at all based on cluster definitions.
SOURCES: Texas Workforce Commission; Bureau of Labor Statistics; authors’ calculations.
San Antonio Average Annual Earnings
Industry cluster 2010 2012 2014 2016 2017
Advanced materials 64,971 67,140 66,025 68,517 68,962
Agribusiness 43,221 43,637 45,340 47,952 48,543
Biomedical 72,527 68,602 72,791 76,512 74,534
Business and financial services 73,828 76,897 76,366 78,046 78,614
Chemicals 56,517 59,057 61,010 61,353 61,797
Computer manufacturing 68,684 78,266 71,988 73,299 74,638
Construction 49,188 50,803 52,645 56,073 56,524
Defense and security 64,083 63,333 63,139 64,020 64,523
Education 45,739 43,601 44,070 44,933 45,491
Electrical equipment manufacturing 52,571 54,668 58,582 68,821 62,760
Energy and mining 60,392 61,409 64,790 66,332 67,380
Fabricated metal manufacturing 46,512 48,730 49,326 50,608 49,431
Food services 17,780 17,627 17,770 18,496 18,606
Glass and ceramics 52,669 54,187 57,638 57,310 59,004
Government 59,228 59,372 60,535 62,125 62,435
Health services 49,084 48,431 48,407 51,534 51,479
Information technology and telecommunications 76,389 80,360 76,762 78,285 78,412
Machinery manufacturing 49,271 55,455 59,470 63,873 67,241
Primary metal manufacturing 64,694 65,371 69,823 71,230 68,193
Publishing and information 54,387 53,708 52,379 52,865 51,157
Recreation 33,154 32,242 33,189 33,625 34,189
Retail 30,289 30,880 31,129 31,982 31,803
Textiles 43,010 39,696 39,714 38,844 39,863
Transportation and logistics 51,715 52,607 52,837 51,446 47,922
Transportation equipment manufacturing 58,582 58,576 62,677 69,627 75,418
Utilities 69,139 73,404 75,562 74,649 74,272
Wood products 43,041 45,226 48,050 49,293 49,508
 
Industry clusters with LQ > 1 43,766 43,232 43,549 45,334 45,662
Industry clusters with LQ < 1 59,739 61,313 62,135 63,466 63,354
 
Average earnings (total) 45,740 45,856 46,417 47,905 48,185
NOTE: Earnings are in 2017 dollars.
SOURCES: Texas Workforce Commission; Bureau of Labor Statistics; authors’ calculations.
San Antonio Demographics
Total population (2017) 2,473,974  
Age distribution (percent)
Median (years) 34.6  
Under 15 years 21.2  
15–24 years 14.5  
25–54 years 40.4  
55–64 years 11.1  
Over 64 years 12.7  
Race/ethnicity (percent)
White, Not Hispanic or Latino 34.1  
Hispanic or Latino 55.1  
Black/African American 6.9  
American Indian/Alaska native 0.6  
Asian 2.5  
Hawaiian/Pacific Islander 0.1  
Other race 7.0  
Two or more races 2.8  
Median household income (2017) $56,774  
Poverty status (percent)
Population below poverty 15.0  
Receiving food stamps/SNAP benefits 12.1  
Receiving cash public assistance 1.5  
Education (percent)
High school graduate or higher 83.8  
Bachelor’s degree or higher 27.8  
Less than 9th grade 7.2  
9th–12th grade, no diploma 9.0  
High school graduate or equivalent 26.4  
Some college, no degree 21.8  
Associate’s degree 7.8  
Bachelor’s degree 17.9  
Graduate or professional degree 9.9  
Average household size 3.0  
Foreign-born status (percent)
Foreign born 12.2  
From Latin America 73.3  
From Mexico 64.3  
From Europe 5.2  
From Asia 17.3  
From Africa 3.0  
From Oceania 0.2  
From North America 0.9  
Workforce characteristics (percent)
Population (16 years and over) in labor force 63.8  
Population (16 years and over) unemployed 3.5  
Self-employed 5.8  
Health insurance (percent)
Population with no health insurance 14.0  
NOTE: Population and median household income figures are for 2017; other data refer to 2016.
SOURCE: American Community Survey.

Additional Tables for Tyler-Longview

Location Quotients, Employment Shares, Average Annual Earnings, Demographics

Tyler-Longview Location Quotients
Industry cluster 2010 2017
Advanced materials 0.3 0.3
Agribusiness 0.4 0.8
Biomedical 0.1 0.1
Business and financial services 0.6 0.6
Chemicals 0.8 0.9
Computer manufacturing 0.5 0.3
Construction 1.5 1.5
Defense and security 0.2 0.2
Education 1.0 1.0
Electrical equipment manufacturing 0.3 0.1
Energy and mining 1.6 1.4
Fabricated metal manufacturing 1.4 1.5
Food services 1.0 1.1
Glass and ceramics 0.4 0.5
Government 0.6 0.6
Health services 1.4 1.5
Information technology and telecommunications 0.4 0.3
Machinery manufacturing 3.5 1.7
Primary metal manufacturing 0.7 1.1
Publishing and information 0.4 0.4
Recreation 0.6 0.5
Retail 1.1 1.1
Textiles 0.2 0.2
Transportation equipment manufacturing 0.4 0.5
Transportation and logistics 1.1 1.1
Utilities 1.4 1.3
Wood products 0.7 0.7
SOURCES: Texas Workforce Commission; Bureau of Labor Statistics; authors’ calculations.
Tyler-Longview Employment Shares
Industry cluster 2010 2017
Advanced materials 1.0 1.0
Agribusiness 1.1 1.8
Biomedical 0.2 0.1
Business and financial services 4.9 5.3
Chemicals 1.3 1.3
Computer manufacturing 0.4 0.2
Construction 6.5 7.0
Defense and security 0.8 0.9
Education 9.3 9.1
Electrical equipment manufacturing 0.1 0.0
Energy and mining 9.1 8.2
Fabricated metal manufacturing 1.4 1.5
Food services 7.7 8.7
Glass and ceramics 0.1 0.2
Government 4.8 4.3
Health services 16.9 17.6
Information technology and telecommunications 1.8 1.4
Machinery manufacturing 2.7 1.3
Primary metal manufacturing 0.2 0.3
Publishing and information 0.7 0.7
Recreation 2.0 1.8
Retail 12.2 12.3
Textiles 0.1 0.1
Transportation equipment manufacturing 0.5 0.5
Transportation and logistics 3.1 3.5
Utilities 0.6 0.5
Wood products 1.0 1.1
NOTE: The percentage shares of individual clusters do not add to 100 because some industries are counted in multiple clusters, and some industries are not counted at all based on cluster definitions.
SOURCES: Texas Workforce Commission; Bureau of Labor Statistics; authors’ calculations.
Tyler-Longview Average Annual Earnings
Industry cluster 2010 2012 2014 2016 2017
Advanced materials 55,918 56,211 56,627 57,473 59,407
Agribusiness 36,515 35,255 39,176 37,508 38,225
Biomedical 45,485 46,369 42,399 42,958 40,793
Business and financial services 68,530 68,005 71,393 69,164 69,302
Chemicals 58,784 61,844 59,391 58,701 57,690
Computer manufacturing 55,873 31,536 48,243 55,299 57,052
Construction 47,234 48,449 49,471 50,177 49,319
Defense and security 45,579 48,493 50,746 47,560 50,119
Education 37,147 35,506 35,154 36,250 35,995
Electrical equipment manufacturing 54,929 58,721 63,176 59,296 54,159
Energy and mining 69,041 76,254 76,629 70,970 70,490
Fabricated metal manufacturing 56,522 58,523 59,808 59,363 62,161
Food services 15,066 14,698 15,042 15,514 15,809
Glass and ceramics 44,456 45,005 47,454 48,362 47,358
Government 48,292 47,348 47,417 48,680 48,792
Health services 51,350 50,858 48,471 51,036 52,093
Information technology and telecommunications 58,591 59,861 63,128 60,765 64,668
Machinery manufacturing 72,482 76,313 80,825 77,205 75,603
Primary metal manufacturing 43,880 40,915 42,499 40,324 56,922
Publishing and information 38,724 38,119 37,909 39,808 41,215
Recreation 22,532 22,623 22,034 23,731 23,546
Retail 30,904 30,172 30,432 29,290 29,798
Textiles 21,314 22,669 24,676 24,417 26,277
Transportation and logistics 52,299 56,168 56,731 56,100 53,444
Transportation equipment manufacturing 43,559 59,694 68,592 47,715 52,509
Utilities 84,274 84,227 87,420 94,030 92,473
Wood products 39,537 38,574 40,561 41,525 42,678
 
Industry clusters with LQ > 1 46,251 47,835 47,751 44,543 44,481
Industry clusters with LQ < 1 46,632 46,344 47,502 51,565 52,503
 
Average earnings (total) 44,792 45,631 45,564 44,105 44,467
NOTE: Earnings are in 2017 dollars.
SOURCES: Texas Workforce Commission; Bureau of Labor Statistics; authors’ calculations.
Tyler–Longview Demographics
Total population (2017) 445,208  
Age distribution (percent)
Median (years) 36.5  
Under 15 years 20.7  
15–24 years 13.6  
25–54 years 37.4  
55–64 years 12.5  
Over 64 years 15.5  
Race/ethnicity (percent)
White, Not Hispanic or Latino 61.8  
Hispanic or Latino 17.7  
Black/African American 17.4  
American Indian/Alaska native 0.4  
Asian 1.5  
Hawaiian/Pacific Islander 0.0  
Other race 2.4  
Two or more races 1.7  
Median household income (2017) Tyler is $54,339, Longview is $48,259  
Poverty status (percent)
Population below poverty 16.0  
Receiving food stamps/SNAP benefits 12.2  
Receiving cash public assistance 2.7  
Education (percent)
High school graduate or higher 83.6  
Bachelor’s degree or higher 22.4  
Less than 9th grade 6.9  
9th–12th grade, no diploma 9.5  
High school graduate or equivalent 27.4  
Some college, no degree 25.6  
Associate’s degree 8.3  
Bachelor’s degree 15.1  
Graduate or professional degree 7.2  
Average household size Tyler is 2.9, Longview is 2.7  
Foreign-born status (percent)
Foreign born 8.7  
From Latin America 77.3  
From Mexico .  
From Europe 6.2  
From Asia 15.0  
From Africa 0.7  
From Oceania 0.4  
From North America 0.4  
Workforce characteristics (percent)
Population (16 years and over) in labor force 58.9  
Population (16 years and over) unemployed 4.0  
Self-employed 5.4  
Health insurance (percent)
Population with no health insurance 16.2  
NOTE: Population and median household income figures are for 2017; other data refer to 2016.
SOURCE: American Community Survey.
At the Heart of Texas